Introduction and presentation go together because the introduction usually leads right into the presentation phase of the lesson. They are still separate parts, however, because they accomplish different purposes.
The INTRODUCTION gives interest and motivation to the students. It focuses students’ attention on the lesson and its purposes. It also convinces students that they will benefit from the lesson.
There are many ways to present an introduction. Here are a few:
- Asking questions to get the students thinking about the topic of the lesson.
- Showing pictures that relate to the lesson topic.
- Telling a story to show the importance of the topic.
- Bringing in (real objects) related to the lesson.
The PRESENTATION phase of the lesson is when the teacher introduces new information. The teacher guides the presentation, but there may be student input or interaction.
The presentation may be…
Inductive (where examples are presented and the students draw conclusions based on them), or Deductive (where the teacher states a rule or generalization and proceeds to explain or illustrate it), or
Some combination or variation of inductive and/or deductive. Whichever method is used, during the presentation phase, the teacher…
Relates the new material, previous knowledge and experiences, with the students
Checks students’ comprehension, and
Models examples of the tasks that will be expected of students during the practice tice phase of the lesson.
Above all, when teaching English to people whose English skills are limited, it is essential to ensure that students understand the presentation by…
Keeping the language simple,
Illustrating the presentation, and
Checking students’ comprehension periodically.
Keep the language of your presentation understandable by…
Using short, uncomplicated sentences (but don’t resort to flip flop talk”)
Using simple, basic vocabulary,
Speaking slowly and distinctly (without exaggerating, of course), and…
Pausing briefly between sentences.
You will have to be sensitive to your particular students (watch their faces, ask them for feedback, check their actual comprehension to adjust all these factors to the right level for them.
Illustrate your presentation with…
pictures (borrowed from a library, clipped from old magazines, drawn on paper or the chalkboard, etc.)
objects from the real world, e.g., real carrots and potatoes for a lesson on the names of vegetables
gestures (pantomime, make dramatic faces, etc. as you speak), and
anything else that helps make the meaning clear.
And perhaps most important of all…
When checking students comprehension, it is not enough to ask, “Do you understand?” They will usually nod their heads or say, “Yes,” even when they are lost. Have them do something to show that they understand.
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